Bones

Bones

Bones
Bones

Some common English names for bones:

English nJ111c     Anatomical name

skull                       cram um

jaw bone                mandible

spine                      vertebral column

breastbone           sternum

rib                          costa

collarbone            clavicle

shoulder blade     scapula

thigh bone            femur

kneecap                patella

shinbone              tibia

Fractures  A fracture is :1 break in a hone. Some of the different types of fracture:

Bones
Bones

A pathological fracture is fracture in a diseased bone. A fatigue or stress fracture is due to repeated minor trauma, for example long-distance marching or running.

Treatment of fractures

When the fragments of a broken bone heal and join together, they unite. Union may be promoted, or helped, by reducing the fracture – replacing the  fragments in their anatomical position if they are displaced. After reduction, excessive movement of the broken bone is prevented by fixation – either external, for example a splint or plaster of Paris cast, or internal, for example a pin or a plate and screws.

A displaced fracture which is not reduced may result a plaster cast in malunion – incomplete or incorrect union.  Note: The verb reduce has several meanings in medicine:

•    to make smaller – I think we’d better reduce the dose of your tablets.

•    (in surgery) to return to anatomical position – A hernia can normally be reduced by manipulation.

•    (in chemistry) to remove oxygen or add hydrogen – Nitric acid is a reducing agent.

Bones
Bones

 

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