Some common English names for bones:
English nJ111c Anatomical name
skull cram um
jaw bone mandible
spine vertebral column
shoulder blade scapula
thigh bone femur
Fractures A fracture is :1 break in a hone. Some of the different types of fracture:
A pathological fracture is fracture in a diseased bone. A fatigue or stress fracture is due to repeated minor trauma, for example long-distance marching or running.
Treatment of fractures
When the fragments of a broken bone heal and join together, they unite. Union may be promoted, or helped, by reducing the fracture – replacing the fragments in their anatomical position if they are displaced. After reduction, excessive movement of the broken bone is prevented by fixation – either external, for example a splint or plaster of Paris cast, or internal, for example a pin or a plate and screws.
A displaced fracture which is not reduced may result a plaster cast in malunion – incomplete or incorrect union. Note: The verb reduce has several meanings in medicine:
• to make smaller – I think we’d better reduce the dose of your tablets.
• (in surgery) to return to anatomical position – A hernia can normally be reduced by manipulation.
• (in chemistry) to remove oxygen or add hydrogen – Nitric acid is a reducing agent.